About Osmanabad
History
The city Osmanabad derives its name from the last ruler of Hyderabad – the 7th Nizam- H.E.H Mir Osman Ali Khan, of which the region was a part till 1947. Osmanabad’s history dates way back to the era of the Ramayana where Lord Rama is said to have spent some of his exile in parts of Osmanabad. As per historical evidence, the district was ruled by the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Rashtrakutas, and Yadavas. In early centuries the city belonged to the Hindu Chalukyas and Devagiri Yadavas, but later became a part of the Bahmani and Bijapur kingdoms.

For a period of time, it was also ruled by the Mughals, Bahmani, Nizam and Adil Shah kingdoms. Before the Hyderabad Nizam’s rule, it was under control of the Mughal King Aurangzeb. Being under the Nizam rule, the district did not celebrate its freedom when the rest of India became independent in 1947. However, soon in 1948, Hyderabad State was merged with independent India and the district became a part of the then Mumbai District. It became a part of Maharashtra State when the State was formed in 1960. Osmanabad has a historic lineage dating back to the days of Marathwada and even before that to several kingdoms of which the region was a part. Old name of Osmanabad is Dharashiv. As the city was called Dharashiv, the caves are situated outside the city are also named Dharashiv Caves. Osmanabad is famous for its religious shrines for Hindus, Buddhist, Jains and other communities and places of historical importance as well.

Geography

The city of Osmanabad has an elevation of 653 metres (2,142 ft). Osmanabad city is located in the west central part of Osmanabad Tahsil, but relatively central for the district as a whole. Tuljapur, Bhoom, Paranda, Washi, and Kalamb are the nearby towns. Solapur, located southwest of Osmanabad in Solapur district, is the nearest sizable city.Osmanabad is on Balaghat Pathar. Bhogavati river flows through the city & meets Sina River near Mohol in Solapur district.

Demographics
In the 2011 Indian census, the city of Osmanabad had 106,644 inhabitants, with 41,982 males (52.1%) and 38,643 females (47.9%), for a gender ratio of 920 females per thousand males. In 2001, Osmanabad had an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%, male literacy was 80%, and female literacy was 67%. In 2001 in Osmanabad, 14% of the population was under 6 years of age.
Education
Osmanabad has one Government BAMS College Known As Ayurvedic College, one Government Polytechnic College,Osmanabad Known As GPO, One BSc Nursing, College of Pharmacy, Pharmacy and Three Private Engineering Colleges. Another engineering college in Osmanabad District is in Tuljapur. Osmanabad has Government Agriculture college (under Marathwada Agriculture University, Parbhani) near Ter.
Monuments and Attraction
Osmanabad is known for Dharashiv Caves, which were built during the 5th-7th century It was initially thought that the Buddhist caves were one of the earliest structures, created between the fifth and eighth centuries, dargah (Sufi shrine built over the grave of a revered religious figure) of Hazrat Khwaja Shamsoddin Gazi (RA). The interior decoration of the dargah, consisting of many colourful glass pieces, is the main attraction of the dargah nowadays. Osmanabad city has Hatladevi mandir which is big religious attraction for people in Osmanabad city.
Dharashiv Caves
The Dharashiv caves are situated 8 km away from Osmanabad City in Balaghat Mountains. There are a total of 7 caves in the Mountain range. The first cave is without any statue with a small open space .The second cave consists of a statue with artistic work on the right side of the statue. The art work is of the Gandharva era. The fourth cave is an open space without any statue inside. The statue in the sixth cave is damaged while the seventh cave has no statue.

That this is an ancient place is shown by the caves excavated in the hill at a distance of about eight miles. These caves were originally Buddhist, but were later converted into monuments of the Jain religion and fresh caves were also excavated nearby. There are some more Buddhist caves that have been excavated in the hills, about 8 miles from Osmanabad city. The earliest of them probably belongs to the 7th century AD. Cave No. II is modeled on the plan of the Vakataka cave at Ajanta caves. It has a central hall measuring 80 feet by 80 feet, with 14 cells for the residence of the Bhiksus and garbhagriha with a colossal image of Lord Buddha in Padmasana. From the hoods of a serpent spread over its head, it is supposed to be the image of the Jain Tirthankara Parashvanath, but the figures of deer with a dharmachakra between them on the pedestal indicates that it is that of Gautama Buddha.